Exports of cloves increased in value by an average 30.9% since 2018 when export sales for cloves were $436.9 million.
Year over year, international sales of the exported spice accelerated by 33% compared to $430.2 million for 2021.
Cloves are used to spice up meats, curries and marinades plus fruits notably apples, pears and rhubarb. They are also added to spice blends like pumpkin pie spice. As well, cloves can give extra aromatic and taste qualities to hot drinks.
Resembling cigars, clove cigarettes are smoked throughout Asia, Europe and the United States. Cloves can also be used in traditional medicine mainly to treat pain in dental emergencies, or as an essential oil for aromatherapy.
By value, the 5 biggest exporters of cloves (Madagascar, Singapore, Indonesia, Tanzania and Comoros) sold 86% of all exported cloves sold during 2022.
Applying a continental perspective, countries in Africa supplied the highest dollar worth of exported cloves during 2022 with shipments valued at $340.6 million or 59.6% of the global total. In second place were exporters in Asia (34.3%) trailed by those in Europe (4.2%) and Latin America (1.5%) excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean. Tinier percentages originated from suppliers in North America (0.4%) and Oceania’s Australia, Fiji and New Zealand only (0.01%).
Shifting our focus to imports, the 5 leading importers of cloves in 2022 are Indonesia, India, Singapore, United Arab Emirates and the United States of America. Combined, that quintet of top import countries bought around three-quarters (74.6%) of globally imported cloves as measured by dollar value.
The above percentages suggest the total 93 exporters of cloves (86% for the corresponding top 5 exporters) is a more concentrated cohort compared to 187 buying countries, islands and territories. The top 5 importers accounted for a smaller portion of its world total at 74.6% (compared to 86% for the 5 leading clove expoerters).
As for global imports of cloves by continent, 83.4% of cloves purchased on international markets was delivered to customers in Asia well ahead of importers in Europe (7.1%), North America (4.5%), Latin America (2.6%) excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, Africa (2.2%) and Oceania (0.3%) led by Australia.
We calculated the average unit price paid by cloves importers to be $5,626 per ton in 2022. That dollar amount reflects a 22.7% inflation rate from the average tonnage charge of $5,626 during 2021.
For research purposes, the 4-digit Harmonized Tariff System code prefix is 0907 for cloves including its whole fruit, cloves and stems.
Exports of cloves can be organized into two major categories: uncrushed and non-ground (97.2%) and crushed or ground (2.8%).
Top Cloves Exports by Country
Below are the top 20 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of cloves during 2022.
- Madagascar: US$272 million (47.6% of total exported cloves)
- Singapore: $94.7 million (16.6%)
- Indonesia: $56.9 million (9.9%)
- Tanzania: $42.1 million (7.4%)
- Comoros: $26.3 million (4.6%)
- Sri Lanka: $20.2 million (3.5%)
- India: $14 million (2.4%)
- Brazil: $8.3 million (1.5%)
- Netherlands: $7.1 million (1.2%)
- Germany: $5.4 million (0.9%)
- China: $5.1 million (0.9%)
- Spain: $2.4 million (0.4%)
- Vietnam: $2 million (0.4%)
- France: $1.74 million (0.3%)
- United States: $1.66 million (0.3%)
- United Kingdom: $1.3 million (0.2%)
- United Arab Emirates: $1.2 million (0.2%)
- Austria: $1.2 million (0.2%)
- Latvia: $1.1 million (0.2%)
- Türkiye: $939,000 (0.2%)
By value, the listed 20 countries shipped 98.9% of globally exported cloves in 2022.
Among the top exporters, the fastest-growing cloves exporters since 2021 were: United States of America (up 60.6%), United Kingdom (up 43%), Vietnam (up 31.5%) and the Netherlands (up 21.9%).
Major suppliers that posted double-digit declines in their exported cloves sales were led by: United Arab Emirates (down -95.6% from 2021), Sri Lanka (down -45.7%), Indonesia (down -40.8%), Tanzania (down -18.7%) and Türkiye (down -10.6%).
Top Cloves Imports by Country
The overall cost for imported cloves expanded by 27.4% over the 5-year period starting in 2018 and accelerated by 44.2% year over year since 2021.
Below are the 20 best buying markets as measured by the highest dollar value worth of cloves imported during 2022.
- Indonesia: US$222.6 million (35% of total imported cloves)
- India: $113.8 million (17.9%)
- Singapore: $90.5 million (14.2%)
- United Arab Emirates: $26.3 million (4.1%)
- United States: $21.2 million (3.3%)
- Saudi Arabia: $20.9 million (3.3%)
- Malaysia: $12 million (1.9%)
- Germany: $8.5 million (1.3%)
- China: $8.1 million (1.3%)
- Pakistan: $7.4 million (1.2%)
- Netherlands: $6.1 million (1%)
- Vietnam: $5.6 million (0.9%)
- Bangladesh: $5.4 million (0.9%)
- Egypt: $5.2 million (0.8%)
- Dominican Republic: $4.8 million (0.8%)
- United Kingdom: $4.6 million (0.7%)
- France: $3.9 million (0.6%)
- Mexico: $3.8 million (0.6%)
- Russia: $3.7 million (0.6%)
- Japan: $3.4 million (0.5%)
By value, the listed 20 countries bought 90.9% of globally imported cloves in 2022.
Among the top importers, the fastest-growing cloves importers since 2021 were: Vietnam (up 340%), Indonesia (up 187.3%), Malaysia (up 132%) and Mexico (up 103.4%).
Five major suppliers posted declines in their imported cloves purchases, namely: Bangladesh (down -60% from 2021), Pakistan (down -22.1%), India (down -16.3%), France (down -4.5%) and the United Arab Emirates (down -1.9%).
Lowest and Highest Unit Prices for Imported Cloves
In 2022, the world’s average unit price for imported cloves was US$7,278 per ton up by 22.7% compared to $5,626 for 2021.
The average tonnage charge for the number one cloves importer, Indonesia, was higher at $8,865.
Ranked in ascending order, listed below are the countries paying the lowest average unit prices for imported cloves in 2022.
- Tanzania: US$152 per ton (down -34.9% from 2021)
- Democratic Republic of the Congo: $154 per ton (down 0%)
- Mauritania: $214 per ton (down -1.4%)
- Liberia: $250 per ton (down -100%)
- Senegal: $278 per ton (down -2.9%)
- Kenya: $324 per ton (down -50.3%)
- Benin: $429 per ton (down -16.6%)
- Burkina Faso: $600 per ton (down 0%)
- Somalia: $931 per ton (down -449.9%)
- Solomon Islands: $1,000 per ton (down 0%)
- Uzbekistan: $1,067 per ton (down -24.9%)
- Rwanda: $1,200 per ton (down -233.3%)
- Eswatini: $1,286 per ton (down -55.5%)
- Ethiopia: $1,629 per ton (down -11.8%)
- Niger: $2,000 per ton (down 0%)
Realizing the greatest reductions in average unit price paid per ton for cloves from 2021 to 2022 were low-cost importers in Somalia (down -449.9%), Rwanda (down -233.3%) and Liberia (down -100%).
The following countries paid the highest average unit prices for imported cloves.
- Luxembourg: US$26,000 per ton (down -46.2% from 2021)
- North Macedonia: $22,000 per ton (up 9.1%)
- Slovenia: $19,571 per ton (down -1.3%)
- Bosnia/Herzegovina: $19,500 per ton (down -16.2%)
- Ireland: $19,286 per ton (down -2.1%)
- Bahamas: $18,000 per ton (up 19.4%)
- Mongolia: $18,000 per ton (up 11.1%)
- Montenegro: $16,000 per ton (2021 data unavailable)
- Malta: $15,000 per ton (up 53.3%)
- Switzerland: $14,762 per ton (down -6.1%)
- Norway: $14,684 per ton (up 1.4%)
- Croatia: $14,167 per ton (up 5.7%)
- South Korea: $13,879 per ton (up 43.4%)
- Iceland: $13,333 per ton (up 7.5%)
- Uruguay: $12,286 per ton (up 28.1%)
Recording double-digit accelerations in terms of higher average unit prices in 2022 compared to 2021 were paid by importers in Malta (up 53.3%), South Korea (up 43.4%), Uruguay (up 28.1%), Bahamas (up 19.4%) and Mongolia (up 11.1%).
See also Top Exported Spices by Sales, Weight and Unit Value, Cinnamon Exports by Country, Top Garlic Exports by Country, Top Turmeric Exports & Imports by Country and Top Peppermint Exports & Imports by Country
Alibaba, Cloves Showroom. Accessed on October 20, 2023
Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook Field Listing: Exports – Commodities. Accessed on October 20, 2023
International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on October 20, 2023
Wikipedia, Clove. Accessed on October 20, 2023