Wheat Exports by Country

Prairie wheat field

Prairie wheat field

Wheat exports by country totaled US$36.3 billion in 2016, down by an overall -25.7% for all wheat shippers over the five-year period starting in 2012 when global wheat exports were valued at $48.8 billion. Similarly, the value of global wheat exports dipped by -6.4% from 2015 to 2016.

Among continents, European countries accounted for the highest dollar value worth of wheat exports during 2016 with shipments amounting to $19.3 billion or 53.3% of global wheat exports. Home to the two leading wheat-shipping nations (United States and Canada), North America accounted for 28.3%.

Representing Oceania, Australia was responsible for 10% of international wheat exports. Latin America (excluding Mexico) and the Caribbean provided 6.2%. Asian countries supplied 2.2% while African exporters trailed badly at 0.1% of worldwide wheat sales.

The 4-digit Harmonized Tariff System code prefix for wheat is 1001.

Wheat Exports by Country


Below are the 15 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of wheat during 2016:

  1. United States: US$5.4 billion (14.8% of total wheat exports)
  2. Canada: $4.5 billion (12.4%)
  3. Russia: $4.2 billion (11.6%)
  4. Australia: $3.6 billion (9.9%)
  5. France: $3.4 billion (9.3%)
  6. Ukraine: $2.6 billion (7.2%)
  7. Germany: $1.9 billion (5.3%)
  8. Argentina: $1.9 billion (5.1%)
  9. Romania: $1.3 billion (3.5%)
  10. Poland: $806.9 million (2.2%)
  11. Bulgaria: $767.7 million (2.1%)
  12. Kazakhstan: $685.1 million (1.9%)
  13. Lithuania: $594.4 million (1.6%)
  14. United Kingdom: $526 million (1.4%)
  15. Czech Republic: $494.4 million (1.4%)

The listed 15 countries shipped 89.9% of all wheat exports in 2016 (by value).

Among the above countries, the fastest-growing wheat exporters since 2012 were: Poland (up 158.1%), Romania (up 82.3%), United Kingdom (up 22.7%) and Czech Republic (up 15.7%).

Those countries that posted declines in their exported wheat sales were led by: Kazakhstan (down -57.2%), Australia (down -46.9%), Argentina (down -36.7%), United States (down -34.4%) and France (down -33.3%).


The following countries posted the highest positive net exports for wheat during 2016. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the surplus between the value of each country’s wheat exports and its import purchases for that same commodity.

  1. United States: US$4.9 billion (net export surplus down -33.6% since 2012)
  2. Canada: $4.5 billion (down -27.2%)
  3. Russia: $4.1 billion (down -7%)
  4. Australia: $3.6 billion (down -46.9%)
  5. France: $3.2 billion (down -36%)
  6. Ukraine: $2.6 billion (up 12.7%)
  7. Argentina: $1.9 billion (down -36.8%)
  8. Germany: $1 billion (down -10.7%)
  9. Romania: $896.7 million (up 65.1%)
  10. Bulgaria: $759.6 million (up 7.3%)
  11. Poland: $701.7 million (up 435.6%)
  12. Kazakhstan: $681.5 million (down -57.3%)
  13. Lithuania: $578.8 million (up 12.2%)
  14. Czech Republic: $486.9 million (up 19.9%)
  15. Hungary: $406.9 million (up 11.4%)

The United States overtook Canada to garner the highest surplus in the international trade of wheat, somewhat surprising given Canada’s relatively smaller population size in relations to its wheat harvest output. What the positive cashflow does is to confirm America’s growing competitive advantage for this important food product category.


The following countries posted the highest negative net exports for wheat during 2015. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the deficit between the value of each country’s wheat import purchases and its exports for that same commodity.

  1. Indonesia: -US$2.4 billion (net export deficit up 6.6% since 2012)
  2. Italy: -$1.7 billion (down -14.7%)
  3. Algeria: -$1.5 billion (down -27.6%)
  4. Egypt: -$1.5 billion (down -51.9%)
  5. Japan: -$1.4 billion (down -36.8%)
  6. Morocco: -$1.3 billion (down -6.8%)
  7. Brazil: -$1.2 billion (up 8.5%)
  8. Spain: -$1.2 billion (down -23.1%)
  9. Philippines: -$1 billion (up 6.8%)
  10. South Korea: -$1 billion (down -43.2%)
  11. Thailand: -$972.1 million (up 17.8%)
  12. Turkey: -$881 million (down -19.3%)
  13. Nigeria: -$860.5 million (down -42.3%)
  14. Vietnam: -$836.8 million (up 8.7%)
  15. China: -$797.7 million (down -27.6%)

Highly populated Indonesia incurred the highest deficit in the international trade of wheat. In turn, this negative cashflow highlights Indonesia’s strong competitive disadvantage for this specific product category but also signals opportunities for wheat-supplying countries that help satisfy the powerful demand among Indonesian consumers.


Wheat-Exporting Companies

Below are bulk wheat-supplying conglomerates that dominate the worldwide grain trade (73% of the global market in 2003, according to OXFAM researchers). Shown within parenthesis is the country where the company is headquartered.

  • Cargill (United States)
  • Archer Daniels Midland (United States)
  • Bunge (United States)
  • Louis Dreyfus (France)

According to global trading platform Alibaba, the following companies are also examples of wheat-trading companies located in the country shown within parentheses:

  • Tropolis (Canada)
  • Pentarch (Australia)
  • FENIL (Russia)
  • SB Import & Export (Germany)
  • Agro Resources International LLC (Ukraine)
  • NUPUR International (India)
  • Zaharni Zavodi – AD (Bulgaria)


Searchable List of Wheat Exporting Countries

You can change the presentation order by clicking the triangle icon at the top of any of the columns below.

RankExporter2016 Wheat Exports% World Total
1.United StatesUS$5.4 billion14.8%
2.Canada$4.5 billion12.4%
3.Russia$4.2 billion11.6%
4.Australia$3.6 billion9.9%
5.France$3.4 billion9.3%
6.Ukraine$2.6 billion7.2%
7.Germany$1.9 billion5.3%
8.Argentina$1.9 billion5.1%
9.Romania$1.3 billion3.5%
10.Poland$806.9 million2.2%
11.Bulgaria$767.7 million2.1%
12.Kazakhstan$685.1 million1.9%
13.Lithuania$594.4 million1.6%
14.United Kingdom$526 million1.4%
15.Czech Republic$494.4 million1.4%
16.Hungary$440.7 million1.2%
17.Mexico$407.3 million1.1%
18.Latvia$381 million1.1%
19.Slovakia$266.6 million0.7%
20.Austria$192.1 million0.5%
21.Sweden$181.1 million0.5%
22.Belgium$177.8 million0.5%
23.Denmark$157.6 million0.4%
24.Greece$153.9 million0.4%
25.Paraguay$147 million0.4%
26.Italy$134.8 million0.4%
27.Serbia$134.4 million0.4%
28.Brazil$115.4 million0.3%
29.Uruguay$108.8 million0.3%
30.Moldova$96.5 million0.3%
31.Netherlands$95.3 million0.3%
32.Spain$80.4 million0.2%
33.Croatia$72.8 million0.2%
34.Estonia$56 million0.2%
35.India$49.9 million0.1%
36.United Arab Emirates$42.9 million0.1%
37.Finland$41.4 million0.1%
38.South Africa$18.5 million0.1%
39.Bosnia/Herzegovina$18.3 million0.1%
40.Slovenia$17.3 million0.05%
41.Belarus$11.9 million0.03%
42.Turkey$11.4 million0.03%
43.Portugal$10.1 million0.03%
44.Luxembourg$7.1 million0.02%
45.Indonesia$6.2 million0.02%
46.Lebanon$4.9 million0.01%
47.Malta$3.9 million0.01%
48.China$3.4 million0.01%
49.Ireland$2.6 million0.01%
50.Switzerland$1.8 million0.005%
51.Malaysia$1.3 million0.004%
64.New Zealand$135,0000.0004%
66.Sri Lanka$119,0000.0003%
70.Saudi Arabia$40,0000.0001%
81.Syrian Arab Republic$4,0000.00001%
84.South Korea$2,0000.00001%
86.Côte d'Ivoire$2,0000.00001%
92.Costa Rica$1,0000.000003%
95.Dominican Republic$1,0000.000003%

See also United States Top 10 Exports, America’s Top Import Partners, Corn Exports by Country and Barley Exports by Country

Research Sources:
The World Factbook, Field Listing: Agriculture – Products, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on May 9, 2017

Trade Map, International Trade Centre. Accessed on May 9, 2017

Investopedia, Net Exports Definition. Accessed on May 9, 2017

OXFAM Research Reports (August 2014) pp 9-10, Cereal Secrets. Accessed on October 26, 2015

Alibaba, Supplier information for wheat. Accessed on May 9, 2017