Wheat Exports by Country

Prairie wheat field

Prairie wheat field

Worldwide wheat exports by country totaled an estimated US$41.2 billion in 2018, down by -13.8% for all wheat shippers over the five-year period starting in 2014 when global wheat exports were valued at $47.8 billion. Year over year, the value of global wheat exports appreciated by 5.7% from 2017 to 2018.

Among continents, European countries generated over half of worldwide wheat exports during 2018 with shipments amounting to $22.6 billion or 54.8% of the global total. Home to two leading wheat-shipping nations (Canada and United States), North America furnished 27.6% to take second place.

From the Oceania continent, Australia was responsible for 7.5% of international sales for wheat. Smaller percentages came from Latin America (6.2%) excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, Asia (3.7%) then Africa (0.1%).

For research purposes, the 4-digit Harmonized Tariff System code prefix for wheat and meslin is 1001.

Wheat Exports by Country


Below are the 15 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of wheat during 2018.

  1. Russia: US$8.4 billion (20.5% of total wheat exports)
  2. Canada: $5.7 billion (13.8%)
  3. United States: $5.5 billion (13.2%)
  4. France: $4.1 billion (10%)
  5. Australia: $3.1 billion (7.5%)
  6. Ukraine: $3 billion (7.3%)
  7. Argentina: $2.4 billion (5.9%)
  8. Romania: $1.23 billion (3%)
  9. Germany: $1.16 billion (2.8%)
  10. Kazakhstan: $965.4 million (2.3%)
  11. Bulgaria: $849.7 million (2.1%)
  12. Hungary: $482.1 million (1.2%)
  13. Czech Republic: $406.0 million (0.99%)
  14. Poland: $404.4 million (0.98%)
  15. Lithuania: $376.8 million (0.91%)

By value, the listed 15 countries shipped 92.5% of global wheat exports in 2018.

Among the above countries, the fastest-growing wheat exporters since 2014 were: Argentina (up 300.7%), Russia (up 55.5%), Ukraine (up 31.1%) and Bulgaria (up 22.9%).

Those countries that posted declines in their exported wheat sales were led by: Germany (down -62.2%), Poland (down -49.9%), Australia (down -42.3%), Lithuania (down -41.7%) and Czech Republic (down -30.1%).


The following countries posted the highest positive net exports for wheat during 2018. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the surplus between the value of each country’s wheat exports and its import purchases for that same commodity.

  1. Russia: US$8.4 billion (net export surplus up 57.2% since 2014)
  2. Canada: $5.7 billion (down -20.7%)
  3. United States: $4.7 billion (down -31%)
  4. France: $4 billion (down -23.6%)
  5. Australia: $3.1 billion (down -42.3%)
  6. Ukraine: $3 billion (up 31.1%)
  7. Argentina: $2.4 billion (up 300.8%)
  8. Romania: $1.1 billion (down -2.8%)
  9. Kazakhstan: $956 million (down -0.2%)
  10. Bulgaria: $835.2 million (up 22.3%)
  11. Hungary: $441.7 million (down -18.5%)
  12. Czech Republic: $394.2 million (down -30.7%)
  13. Lithuania: $359.9 million (down -41.5%)
  14. Germany: $325.8 million (down -83%)
  15. Pakistan: $322.4 million (reversing a -$176.9 million deficit)

Russia garnered the highest surplus in the international trade of wheat in 2018. The positive trade balance for wheat confirms Russia’s superior competitive advantage for this important food product category.


The following countries posted the highest negative net exports for wheat during 2018. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the deficit between the value of each country’s wheat import purchases and its exports for that same commodity.

  1. Egypt: -US$2.63 billion (net export deficit down -14.1% since 2014)
  2. Indonesia: -$2.57 billion (up 7.7%)
  3. Algeria: -$1.86 billion (down -21.8%)
  4. Italy: -$1.76 billion (down -21.9%)
  5. Philippines: -$1.68 billion (up 82.4%)
  6. Japan: -$1.64 billion (down -16.8%)
  7. Brazil: -$1.46 billion (down -14.6%)
  8. Turkey: -$1.27 billion (down -16.2%)
  9. Spain: -$1.23 billion (up 2.4%)
  10. Nigeria: -$1.15 billion (down -31.2%)
  11. Netherlands: -$1.07 billion (up 27.9%)
  12. South Korea: -$1 billion (down -17.2%)
  13. Bangladesh: -$996.4 million (no 2014 data)
  14. Morocco: -$977.7 million (down -35.4%)
  15. Mexico: -$946.9 million (up 1.7%)

Egypt and Indonesia incurred the highest deficits in the international trade of wheat. In turn, this negative cashflow highlights Egypt’s and Indonesia’s severe competitive disadvantages for this specific product category but also signals opportunities for wheat-supplying countries that help satisfy the powerful demand among Egyptian and Indonesian consumers.


Wheat-Exporting Companies

Below are bulk wheat-supplying conglomerates that dominate the worldwide grain trade (73% of the global market in 2003, according to OXFAM researchers). Shown within parenthesis is the country where the company is headquartered.

  • Cargill (United States)
  • Archer Daniels Midland (United States)
  • Bunge (United States)
  • Louis Dreyfus (France)

According to global trading platform Alibaba, the following companies are also examples of wheat-trading companies located in the country shown within parentheses:

  • Tropolis (Canada)
  • Pentarch (Australia)
  • FENIL (Russia)
  • SB Import & Export (Germany)
  • Agro Resources International LLC (Ukraine)
  • NUPUR International (India)
  • Zaharni Zavodi – AD (Bulgaria)


Searchable List of Wheat Exporting Countries in 2018

You can change the presentation order by clicking the triangle icon at the top of any of the columns below.

RankExporterWheat Exports (US$)%World Total
1.Russia$8.4 billion21.1%
2.Canada$5.7 billion14.2%
3.United States$5.4 billion13.6%
4.France$4.1 billion10.3%
5.Australia$3.1 billion7.7%
6.Argentina$2.5 billion6.2%
7.Ukraine$2.4 billion5.9%
8.Romania$1.2 billion3.1%
9.Germany$1.2 billion2.9%
10.Kazakhstan$965.4 million2.4%
11.Bulgaria$851.8 million2.1%
12.Hungary$429.6 million1.1%
13.Poland$403.4 million1%
14.Lithuania$376.8 million0.9%
15.Pakistan$322.4 million0.8%
16.Latvia$305.5 million0.8%
17.Mexico$222.2 million0.6%
18.Slovakia$220.6 million0.6%
19.Serbia$209.1 million0.5%
20.Belgium$198.7 million0.5%
21.Austria$189.2 million0.5%
22.Moldova$111.3 million0.3%
23.Croatia$105.8 million0.3%
24.Netherlands$102.8 million0.3%
25.Denmark$101.5 million0.3%
26.Spain$97.2 million0.2%
27.Sweden$88.9 million0.2%
28.Greece$87.2 million0.2%
29.United Kingdom$85.1 million0.2%
30.Paraguay$83.5 million0.2%
31.Italy$65.3 million0.2%
32.Slovenia$59.8 million0.1%
33.Estonia$48.1 million0.1%
34.India$46.3 million0.1%
35.Brazil$40.5 million0.1%
36.Czech Republic$34.5 million0.1%
37.Turkey$24 million0.1%
38.Jordan$23.6 million0.1%
39.Uruguay$22.5 million0.1%
40.South Africa$19.6 million0.05%
41.United Arab Emirates$15.1 million0.04%
42.Bosnia/Herzegovina$11.7 million0.03%
43.Finland$10.9 million0.03%
44.Luxembourg$8.2 million0.02%
45.Cayman Islands$7.9 million0.02%
46.Portugal$7.5 million0.02%
47.Ireland$4.9 million0.01%
48.Rwanda$3.8 million0.01%
49.China$3.1 million0.01%
50.North Macedonia$2.9 million0.01%
51.Georgia$2.7 million0.01%
52.Lebanon$1.5 million0.004%
58.Papua New Guinea$435,0000.001%
59.El Salvador$425,0000.001%
60.Viet Nam$421,0000.001%
68.Ivory Coast$198,0000.0005%
73.New Zealand$111,0000.0003%
75.Sri Lanka$58,0000.0001%
89.South Korea$3,0000.00001%
92.Democr. Rep. Congo$2,0000.000005%
93.Dominican Republic$2,0000.000005%

See also Wheat Imports by Country, America’s Top Trading Partners, Corn Exports by Country and Barley Exports by Country

Research Sources:
Alibaba, Supplier information for wheat. Accessed on April 16, 2019
International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on April 16, 2019

Investopedia, Net Exports Definition. Accessed on April 16, 2019

OXFAM Research Reports (August 2014) pp 9-10, Cereal Secrets. Accessed on April 16, 2019

The World Factbook, Field Listing: Exports – Commodities, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on April 15, 2019