From 2019 to 2020, the value of exported vaccines intended for humans increased by 2%.
In 2020, the 5 leading exporters of vaccines are Belgium, Ireland, France, United States of America and Italy. Collectively, that quintet of major shippers for vaccines accounted for 80.7% of globally exported immunization medicines. Such a high percentage indicates a relatively concentrated cohort of vaccines exporters.
Applying a continental perspective, suppliers located in European countries sold the highest dollar worth of exported human vaccines during 2020 with shipments valued at $27.1 billion or 87.9% of the world total. In second place were North American exporters at 7.1% while 4.6% of worldwide shipments of vaccines for human applications originated from Asia.
Smaller percentages came from Oceania’s (0.3%) led by Australia, Latin America (0.1%), and Africa (0.03%).
For research purposes, the 6-digit Harmonized Tariff System code prefix is 300220 for vaccines used in human medicine.
Top Human Vaccines Exports by Country
Below are the 15 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of vaccines during 2020.
- Belgium: US$11.8 billion (38.4% of exported vaccines)
- Ireland: $5.1 billion (16.6%)
- France: $4.4 billion (14.3%)
- United States: $1.771 billion (5.8%)
- Italy: $1.767 billion (5.7%)
- United Kingdom: $981.6 million (3.2%)
- India: $744.9 million (2.4%)
- Poland: $705.9 million (2.3%)
- Netherlands: $620.7 million (2%)
- Germany: $565.3 million (1.8%)
- Canada: $410.5 million (1.3%)
- Austria: $339 million (1.1%)
- Spain: $315.3 million (1%)
- China: $281.2 million (0.9%)
- South Korea: $172.6 million (0.6%)
By value, the listed 15 countries shipped 97.4% of globally exported vaccines in 2020.
Among the top exporters, the fastest-growing exporters of vaccines since 2016 were: Poland (up 411.3%), China (up 339.8%), Austria (up 122.8%) and Italy (up 117.9%).
Four top suppliers that posted declines in their international sales of vaccines were: United Kingdom (down -68.1%), Canada (down -16.6%), South Korea (down -16.2%) and the United States of America (down -3%).
The following countries posted the highest positive net exports for human vaccines during 2020. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the surplus between the value of each country’s exported human vaccines and its import purchases for that same commodity.
- Ireland: US$4.7 billion (net export surplus up 55% since 2016)
- France: $3.7 billion (up 62.2%)
- Belgium: $3.6 billion (up 85.4%)
- Italy: $1 billion (up 148.4%)
- Netherlands: $509.5 million (up 151.5%)
- India: $405.4 million (down -2.5%)
- Austria: $175.1 million (up 122.3%)
- Bulgaria: $12.1 million (reversing a -$3.9 million deficit)
- Faroe Islands: $61,000 (reversing a -$222,000 deficit)
The Republic of Ireland has the highest surplus in the international trade of human vaccines. In turn, this positive cashflow confirms Ireland’s strong competitive advantage for this specific product category.
The following countries posted the highest negative net exports for human vaccines during 2020. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the deficit between the value of each country’s imported human vaccines purchases and its exports for that same commodity.
- United States: -US$5.7 billion (net export deficit up 154.5% since 2016)
- China: -$2.1 billion (up 1127.1%)
- Nigeria: -$1.3 billion (up 17044.1%)
- Germany: -$912 million (up 108.3%)
- Brazil: -$747.1 million (up 7.7%)
- Japan: -$476.8 million (down -9.2%)
- Vietnam: -$417.5 million (up 226.8%)
- Spain: -$383.7 million (up 100.4%)
- Turkey: -$268.2 million (up 71.9%)
- Argentina: -$253.8 million (up 144.4%)
- United Kingdom: -$234.6 million (reversing a $929.5 million surplus)
- Pakistan: -$225.1 million (up 6.3%)
- Saudi Arabia: -$211.4 million (up 11%)
- Australia: -$209.2 million (up 40.5%)
- Israel: -$203.1 million (up 236.7%)
The United States of America incurred the highest deficit in the international trade of human vaccines. In turn, this negative cashflow highlights America’s competitive disadvantage for this specific product category but also signals opportunities for human vaccines-supplying countries that help satisfy the powerful consumer demand.
Human Vaccines Exporting Companies
Below are global human vaccines-processing conglomerates that represent the largest established players engaged in the international trade of human vaccines. Their city and home country for each corporation’s headquarters is shown within parenthesis.
- GlaxoSmithKline (London, UK)
- Merck & Co (Kenilworth, USA)
- Sanofi (Paris, France)
- Pfizer (New York, USA)
- Novavax (Rockville, USA)
- Emergent BioSolutions (Rockville, USA)
- CSL (Melbourne, Australia)
- Inovio Pharmaceuticals (Plymouth Meeting, USA)
- Bavarian Nordic (Kvistgaard, Denmark)
- Mitsubishi Tanabe (Tokyo, Japan)
The above list is ordered based on company size, and mirrors rankings from the technavio Blog.
See also Heart Pacemaker Export Sales by Country, Drugs and Medicine Exports by Country, Top Blood Exporters by Country and Top Vitamins Exports & Imports by Country
Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook Field Listing: Exports – Commodities. Accessed on January 22, 2022
International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on January 22, 2022
Investopedia, Net Exports Definition. Accessed on January 22, 2022
Technavio Blog, Top 10 Vaccine Manufacturers in the World 2020. Accessed on January 22, 2022
Wikipedia, Vaccine. Accessed on January 22, 2022