That dollar amount reflects a 51.4% increase compared to $167.9 billion during 2018.
Year over year, the overall value of Turkish exports rose 12.8% from $225.3 billion in 2021.
Based on the average exchange rate for 2021, the Turkish lira depreciated by 83.3% against the US dollar since 2018 and declined by -26.3% from 2020 to 2021. (2021 was the latest date for which exchange rate data was available on article publication date.) Türkiye’s weaker local currency makes its exports paid for in stronger US dollars relatively less expensive for international buyers.
Türkiye’s biggest export products by value in 2022 were refined petroleum oils, cars, jewelry, automotive parts or accessories, and trucks. In aggregate, those major exports account for 16.8% of overall exports sales from Türkiye. That comparatively low percentage suggests a relatively diversified range of exported goods.
Historically recognized as a go-to exporter for rugs, Türkiye also ranks among the leading nations for exporting trucks and jewelry.
Türkiye’s Best International Trade Customers
The latest available country-specific data shows that 52.4% of products exported from Türkiye were bought by importers in: Germany (8.3% of its global total), United States of America (6.6%), Iraq (5.4%), United Kingdom (5.1%), Italy (4.9%), Spain (3.8%), France (also 3.8%), Russia (3.7%), Netherlands (3.2%), Israel (2.8%), Romania (2.7%) and Poland (2.2%).
From a continental perspective, 55.1% of Türkiye’s exports by value were delivered to European countries while 25.1% were sold to Asian importers. Türkiye shipped another 9.5% worth of goods to Africa.
Smaller percentages went to North America (7.8%), Latin America (2%) excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, then Oceania (0.6%) led by Australia, Marshall Islands and New Zealand.
Given Türkiye’s population of 85.7 million people, its total $254.2 billion in 2022 exports translates to roughly $3,000 for every resident in the Middle Eastern country. That per-capital amount exceeds the average $2,000 for 2021.
Türkiye’s Top 10 Exports
The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Turkish global shipments during 2022. Also shown is the percentage share each export category represents in terms of overall exports from Türkiye.
- Vehicles: US$26.8 billion (10.5% of total exports)
- Machinery including computers: $22.7 billion (8.9%)
- Mineral fuels including oil: $16.4 billion (6.4%)
- Iron, steel: $14.6 billion (5.8%)
- Electrical machinery, equipment: $13.7 billion (5.4%)
- Plastics, plastic articles: $11.6 billion (4.6%)
- Knit or crochet clothing, accessories: $11 billion (4.3%)
- Articles of iron or steel: $10.5 billion (4.1%)
- Gems, precious metals: $10.2 billion (4%)
- Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $8.5 billion (3.3%)
Türkiye’s top 10 exports accounted for under three-fifths (57.4%) of the overall value of its global shipments.
Mineral fuels including oil was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 92.3% since 2021.
In second place for improving export sales were items made from iron or steel: which was up by 19.7%.
Türkiye’s shipments of plastics as materials and items made from plastic posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 15.5% year over year.
The leading decliner among Türkiye’s top 10 export categories was iron and steel metals, a product which fell -14.3%
Note that the results listed above are at the categorized two-digit Harmonized Tariff System (HTS) code level. For a more granular view of exported goods at the four-digit HTS code level, see the section Searchable List of Türkiye’s Most Valuable Export Products further down below.
Products Generating the Greatest Trade Surpluses for Türkiye
The following types of Turkish product shipments represent positive net exports or a trade balance surplus. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports.
In a nutshell, net exports represent the amount by which foreign spending on a home country’s goods or services exceeds or lags the home country’s spending on foreign goods or services.
- Knit or crochet clothing, accessories: US$9.9 billion (Down by -1.6% since 2021)
- Vehicles: $9.1 billion (Down by -3.3%)
- Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $7.2 billion (Up by 6.9%)
- Articles of iron or steel: $6.8 billion (Up by 15%)
- Furniture, bedding, lighting , signs, prefab buildings: $4.4 billion (Up by 9.1%)
- Fruits, nuts: $3.9 billion (Down by -13.1%)
- Salt, sulphur, stone, cement: $3.1 billion (Up by 6.8%)
- Vegetable/fruit/nut preparations: $2.8 billion (Up by 11.3%)
- Textile floor coverings: $2.7 billion (Down by -13.8%)
- Miscellaneous textiles, worn clothing: $2.5 billion (Down by -4.7%)
Türkiye has highly positive net exports in the international trade of knitted or crocheted clothing and accessories. In turn, these cashflows indicate Türkiye’s strong competitive advantages under the knit or crochet clothing product categories.
Products Causing the Biggest Trade Deficits for Türkiye
Overall Türkiye incurred a -$46.1 billion deficit on all products for 2022. That amount is a -7.5% decrease from the -$48.6 billion in red ink one year earlier during 2021.
Below are exports from Türkiye that result in negative net exports or product trade balance deficits. These negative net exports reveal product categories where foreign spending on home country Türkiye’s goods trail Turkish importer spending on foreign products.
- Mineral fuels including oil: -US$80.2 billion (Up by 90.1% since 2021)
- Iron, steel: -$13.7 billion (Up by 30.3%)
- Gems, precious metals: -$13.3 billion (Reversing a $3.9 billion surplus)
- Machinery including computers: -$11.9 billion (Up by 16.8%)
- Organic chemicals: -$9.8 billion (Up by 18.1%)
- Electrical machinery, equipment: -$7.8 billion (Down by -1.6%)
- Plastics, plastic articles: -$7.4 billion (Down by -2.2%)
- Cereals: -$4.7 billion (Up by 22.1%)
- Optical, technical, medical apparatus: -$3.6 billion (Up by 5.2%)
- Copper: -$2.8 billion (Up by 6.8%)
Türkiye has highly negative net exports and therefore deep international trade deficits under the mineral fuels including oil category, notably for processed petroleum oils, coal and petroleum gases.
These cashflow deficiencies clearly indicate Türkiye’s competitive disadvantages in the international fossil fuel market, but also represent key opportunities for Türkiye to improve its position in the global economy through focused innovations.
Türkiye’s Major Export Companies
Based on Forbes Global 2000 rankings, the following companies are examples of leading Turkish companies.
- Koç Group (industrial conglomerate)
- Sabanci Holding (automotive, banking)
- Turkcell (mobile phones)
- Enka (construction services)
- Anadolu Efes (brewery, non-alcoholic drinks)
Global trade intelligence firm Zepol lists the following firms exporting from Türkiye.
- Anadolu Dokum San (cast iron/steel articles)
- Cevikler Dis Ticaret (monumental/building stone)
- Evimteks Dis Tic Ve Paz (woven fabrics, facial tissues)
- MCE Cargo (steam condensers, plywood)
- Ulus Metal San Ve Tic (chain sprockets, transmission components, auto parts)
Searchable List of Türkiye’s Most Valuable Export Products
The following searchable table displays 100 of the most in-demand goods shipped from Türkiye during 2022. Shown beside each product label is its total export value then the percentage increase or decrease since 2021.
|Rank||Türkiye's Export Product||Value (US$)||YOY|
|1||Processed petroleum oils||$6,524,419,000||+100.1%|
|6||Iron or non-alloy steel bars, rods||$4,754,329,000||-11.5%|
|7||Women's clothing (not knit or crochet)||$3,416,172,000||+10.7%|
|9||T-shirts, vests (knit or crochet)||$2,702,589,000||+2.1%|
|10||Jerseys, pullovers (knit or crochet)||$2,609,952,000||+2%|
|13||Miscellaneous iron and steel structures||$2,210,538,000||+11.8%|
|15||Textile floor coverings, carpets||$1,791,660,000||+33%|
|16||Plastic plates, sheets, film, tape, strips||$2,711,538,000||-15.7%|
|17||Men's suits, trousers (not knit or crochet)||$1,835,950,000||+13.1%|
|18||Miscellaneous iron or steel tubes, pipes||$1,618,975,000||+25.3%|
|21||Rubber tires (new)||$1,556,591,000||+20.9%|
|22||Flat-rolled iron or non-alloy steel products (plated/coated)||$1,699,313,000||+8.8%|
|23||Piston engine parts||$2,860,385,000||-36.2%|
|24||Hot-rolled iron or non-alloy steel products||$1,849,198,000||-4.8%|
|26||Seats (excluding barber/dentist chairs)||$1,368,120,000||+21.6%|
|28||Iron or non-alloy steel angles, shapes, sections||$870,709,000||+85.8%|
|30||Electrical converters/power units||$1,811,131,000||-15.2%|
|31||Wheat, meslin flour||$1,103,008,000||+37.7%|
|33||Electric water heaters, hair dryers||$1,269,816,000||+17%|
|34||Women's clothing (knit or crochet)||$1,602,037,000||-7.4%|
|35||Bread, biscuits, cakes, pastries||$1,515,166,000||-7.4%|
|36||Plastic packing goods, lids, caps||$1,189,948,000||+17.6%|
|37||Monument/building stones, art||$1,264,075,000||+9.7%|
|40||Stockings, hosiery (knit or crochet)||$1,453,543,000||-6.9%|
|41||Other than warp-knit fabrics||$1,312,477,000||+1.7%|
|42||Aluminum plates, sheets, strips||$1,263,723,000||+1.9%|
|43||Medication mixes in dosage||$1,073,118,000||+17%|
|44||Coal tar oils (high temperature distillation)||$1,261,878,000||-2.9%|
|45||Dishwashing, clean/dry/fill machines||$708,622,000||+69.4%|
|46||Miscellaneous iron or steel items||$1,155,344,000||+2.8%|
|48||Dried shelled vegetables||$844,459,000||+29%|
|49||Unglazed ceramic flags, tiles||$690,697,000||+55.9%|
|54||Liquid pumps and elevators||$1,376,908,000||-28.7%|
|57||Miscellaneous preserved fruits||$769,546,000||+24.4%|
|58||Coiled iron or non-alloy steel bars, rods||$1,028,128,000||-9.2%|
|59||Paper containers, cellulose wadding||$1,034,762,000||-11.47%|
|60||Fresh or dried citrus fruit||$801,526,000||+13.4%|
|61||Centrifuges, filters and purifiers||$933,720,000||-3.5%|
|62||Synthetic yarn woven fabrics||$664,099,000||+34.1%|
|63||Sanitary towels, baby napkins/liners||$824,988,000||+7.3%|
|65||Synthetic filament yarn||$676,956,000||+26.9%|
|66||Taps, valves, similar appliances||$916,096,000||-7.2%|
|67||Chocolate, other cocoa preparations||$779,284,000||+8.5%|
|68||Ligneous fiberboard including wood||$688,415,000||+22.3%|
|69||Plastic tubes, pipes, fittings||$738,031,000||+13.1%|
|70||Iron and steel screws, bolts, nuts, washers||$767,600,000||+5.4%|
|71||Sugar confectionery (no cocoa)||$645,840,000||+24.5%|
|72||Lower-voltage switches, fuses||$635,899,000||+25.1%|
|74||Transmission shafts, gears, clutches||$814,320,000||-4.5%|
|76||Vulcanized rubber items||$751,237,000||+2.1%|
|78||Men's suits,trousers (knit or crochet)||$680,132,000||+11.4%|
|79||Yarn wash/clean/iron machines||$629,226,000||+17.7%|
|82||Base metal mountings, fittings||$452,100,000||+61.3%|
|83||Plastic plates, sheets, film, tape, strips||$677,236,000||+7.51%|
|84||Electric generating sets, converters||$645,235,000||+11.1%|
|86||Electrical/optical circuit boards, panels||$348,653,000||+97.5%|
|87||Aluminum foil (thin)||$604,028,000||+13.7%|
|88||Air or vacuum pumps||$474,159,000||+43.9%|
|90||Yarn (85%+ cotton)||$577,386,000||+16.9%|
|92||Plastic tableware, kitchenware, toiletry||$578,137,000||+15.1%|
|93||Women's shirts (not knit or crochet)||$619,662,000||+7.2%|
|94||Grapes (fresh or dried)||$630,659,000||+5.1%|
|95||Petroleum oil residues||$683,787,000||-4.2%|
|96||Marble, other monumen t or building stone||$490,550,000||+31.9%|
|97||Whole fish (fresh)||$787,285,000||-18%|
|98||Men's shirts (not knit or crochet)||$636,734,000||+0.9%|
|99||Flat-rolled stainless steel items||$489,965,000||+29.6%|
|100||Electric motor parts||$495,157,000||+26.4%|
These 100 exported goods were worth a subtotal of US$162.8 billion or 64% by value for all products exported from Türkiye during 2022.
In macroeconomic terms, Türkiye’s total exported goods represent 7.7% of its overall Gross Domestic Product for 2022 ($3.321 trillion valued in Purchasing Power Parity US dollars). That 7.7% for exports to overall GDP per PPP in 2022 exceeds the 7.8% one year earlier. Those percentages suggest a relatively decreasing reliance on products sold on international markets for Türkiye’s total economic performance.
Another key indicator of a country’s economic performance is its unemployment rate. Türkiye’s unemployment rate averaged 10.761% for 2022, down from a 12.152% jobless rate one year earlier according to the International Monetary Fund.
Türkiye’s capital city is Ankara.
See also Top Turkish Trade Balances, Türkiye’s Top Trading Partners and Türkiye’s Top 10 Imports
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Forbes Global 2000 rankings, The World’s Biggest Public Companies. Accessed on March 23, 2023
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International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on March 23, 2023
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Richest Country Reports, Key Statistics Powering Global Wealth. Accessed on March 23, 2023
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Wikipedia, List of Companies of Türkiye. Accessed on March 23, 2023
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Zepol’s Company summary highlights by country. Accessed on March 23, 2023