That dollar amount reflects a 37.7% expansion since 2018 when Polish exports totaled $261.8 billion.
Year over year, the value of Poland’s exports accelerated by 13.4% from $317.8 billion during 2021.
Based on the average exchange rate for 2022, the Polish złoty shrank in value by -23.4% against the US dollar since 2018 and fell by -15.4% from 2021 to 2022. Poland’s weaker local currency makes its exports paid for in stronger US dollars relatively less expensive for international buyers.
Poland’s Main Trading Partners
The latest available country-specific data shows that 70.6% of products exported from Poland were bought by importers in: Germany (27.8% of the Polish total), Czech Republic (6.6%), France (5.7%), United Kingdom (4.9%), Netherlands (4.6%), Italy (also 4.6%), United States of America (3%), Slovakia (2.9%), Ukraine (2.81%), Sweden (2.67%), Hungary (2.57%) and Spain (2.54%).
From a continental perspective, 88.5% of Poland’s exports by value was delivered to fellow European countries while 5.4% was sold to importers in Asia. Poland shipped another 4.1% worth of goods to North America.
Smaller percentages went to Africa (1.2%), Latin America (0.5%) excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, then Oceania (0.4%) led by Australia and New Zealand.
Given Poland’s population of 37.7 million people, its total $360.5 billion in 2022 exports translates to roughly $9,600 for every resident in the Central European country. That dollar metric exceeds the average $8,400 per capita for 2021.
Poland’s Top 10 Exports
The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Polish global shipments during 2022. Also shown is the percentage share each export category represents in terms of overall exports from Poland.
- Machinery including computers: US$40.5 billion (12.7% of total exports)
- Electrical machinery, equipment: $39.4 billion (12.4%)
- Vehicles: $27.3 billion (8.6%)
- Furniture, bedding, lighting, signs, prefab buildings: $17.6 billion (5.6%)
- Plastics, plastic articles: $15.8 billion (5%)
- Articles of iron or steel: $10.8 billion (3.4%)
- Iron, steel: $7.4 billion (2.3%)
- Mineral fuels including oil: $7 billion (2.2%)
- Meat: $6.4 billion (2%)
- Rubber, rubber articles: $6.3 billion (2%)
Poland’s top 10 exports accounted for 57.9% of the overall value of its global shipments.
Mineral fuels including oil represents the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 99.1% from 2021 to 2022. That leading category for Polish exports was propelled by higher international sales of refined petroleum oils and electrical energy.
In second place for improving export sales were Polish shipments of wood via a 65.4% advance.
Poland’s exports of meat posted the third-fastest gain in value, improving by 23.9%.
The lone decliner among Poland’s top 10 export categories was the furniture, bedding, lighting, signs and prefabricated buildings, dragged down by a -1.1% drop compared to 2021.
At the more granular four-digit Harmonized Tariff System code level, Poland’s most valuable export products are automobile parts or accessories (4.2% of Poland’s total exports), electric storage batteries (2.6%), computers including optical readers (2.2%), TV receivers, monitors or projectors (2%), seats (1.9%) excluding barber and dentist chairs, miscellaneous furniture (also 1.9%), cars (1.6%), trucks (1.3%), poultry meat (1.2%), then turbo-jets (1.1%).
Countries Generating Biggest Trade Surpluses for Poland
The following types of Polish product shipments represent positive net exports or a trade balance surplus. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports.
In a nutshell, net exports represent the amount by which foreign spending on a home country’s goods or services exceeds or lags the home country’s spending on foreign goods or services.
- Furniture, bedding, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings: US$12.1 billion (Up by 1.1% since 2021)
- Meat: $5.8 billion (Up by 28.4%)
- Wood: $4.7 billion (Up by 174.4%)
- Machinery including computers: $4.3 billion (Reversing a -$77.2 million deficit)
- Articles of iron or steel: $3.7 billion (Up by 29.1%)
- Vehicles: $3.2 billion (Reversing a -$89.3 million deficit)
- Tobacco, manufactured substitutes: $3.1 billion (Down by -14.2%)
- Cereal/milk preparations: $2.7 billion (Up by 54.4%)
- Dairy, eggs, honey: $2.32 billion (Up by 39.3%)
- Meat/seafood preparations: $2.28 billion (Up by 7.1%)
Poland has highly positive net exports in the international trade of chairs, mattresses, prefabricated buildings and lighting-related goods. In turn, these cashflows indicate Poland’s strong competitive advantages under the related product category.
Countries Causing Worst Trade Deficits for Poland
Poland racked up an overall -$20.6 billion trade deficit in 2022, swelling by 17.2% from the -$17.6 billion in red ink one year earlier for 2021.
Below are exports from Poland that result in negative net exports or product trade balance deficits. These negative net exports reveal product categories where foreign spending on home country Poland’s goods trail Polish importer spending on foreign products.
- Mineral fuels including oil: -US$23.3 billion (Up by 67.5% since 2021)
- Iron, steel: -$7.9 billion (Up by 0.7%)
- Pharmaceuticals: -$4.7 billion (Down by -3.6%)
- Inorganic chemicals: -$3.8 billion (Up by 74.6%)
- Plastics, plastic articles: -$2.87 billion (Down by -46.8%)
- Organic chemicals: -$2.86 billion (Down by -1.5%)
- Knit or crochet clothing, accessories: -$1.69 billion (Up by 89.4%)
- Electrical machinery, equipment: -$1.65 billion (Down by -69.4%)
- Aluminum: -$1.48 billion (Up by 5.2%)
- Ores, slag, ash: -$1.4 billion (Down by -6.1%)
Poland has highly negative net exports and therefore deep international trade deficits for mineral fuels-related products notably from buying and selling crude oil on global markets.
These cashflow deficiencies clearly indicate Poland’s competitive disadvantages in the international energy market, but also represent key opportunities for Poland to improve its position in the global economy through focused innovations particularly alternative energy sources.
Poland’s Major Export Companies
Seven corporations rank among Forbes Global 2000. Below is a sample of the major Polish companies that Forbes included.
- KGHM Polska Miedz (diversified metals, mining)
- Pgnig Group (oil, gas)
- PKN Orlen (oil, gas)
Global trade intelligence firm Zepol mentions the following companies as examples of Polish export companies.
- Cimir Poland (seats, furniture parts)
- Nexter Automotive Poland S P Zoo (steering mechanisms, synchronous belts, goods transportation vehicles)
- Radiatym Bogdar Tymkiewicz (iron and stainless steel fittings, frozen fish fillets, palmitic/stearic acid)
- Tristone Flowtech Poland (tubes/pipes/hoses, latex, rubber transmission belts)
In macroeconomic terms, Poland’s total exported goods represent 22% of its overall Gross Domestic Product for 2022 ($1.637 trillion valued in Purchasing Power Parity US dollars). That 22% for exports to overall GDP in PPP for 2022 compares to 22.2% for 2021. This suggests a slightly decreasing reliance on products sold on international markets for Poland’s total economic performance, albeit based on a short timeframe.
Another key indicator of a country’s economic performance is its unemployment rate. Poland’s unemployment rate averaged 2.887% for 2022, down from an average 3.362% in 2021 to the International Monetary Fund.
Poland’s capital city is Warsaw.
See also Poland’s Top Trading Partners, Poland’s Top 10 Imports, Czech Republic’s Top Trading Partners and Germany’s Top Trading Partners
Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook Country Profiles, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on May 13, 2023
Forbes Global 2000 rankings, The World’s Biggest Public Companies. Accessed on May 13, 2023
International Monetary Fund, Exchange Rates selected indicators (Domestic Currency per U.S. dollar, period average). Accessed on May 13, 2023
International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database (GDP based on Purchasing Power Parity). Accessed on May 13, 2023
International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on May 13, 2023
Investopedia, Net Exports Definition. Accessed on May 13, 2023
Wikipedia, Gross domestic product. Accessed on May 13, 2023
Wikipedia, List of Companies of Poland. Accessed on May 13, 2023
Wikipedia, Poland. Accessed on May 13, 2023
Wikipedia, Purchasing power parity. Accessed on May 13, 2023
Zepol’s company summary highlights by country. Accessed on May 13, 2023