That dollar amount reflects a 43.6% boost since 2017 when Polish exports totaled $221.7 billion. Year over year, the value of Poland’s exports grew by 25% from $254.2 billion during 2020.
The top 5 trading partners buying the highest dollar worth of products exported from Poland are Germany, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, France and Italy. Combined, that quintet of leading importers accounted for roughly half (50.4%) of Polish exports by value.
Applying a continental lens, 85.9% of Poland’s exports by value were delivered to fellow European countries while 5% were sold to importers in Asia. Poland shipped another 3.7% worth of goods to each of North America and Oceania led by Australia.
Tinier percentages went to Africa (1.2%) and Latin America (0.6%) excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean.
Poland’s Top Trading Partners
Below is a list showcasing 15 of Poland’s top trading partners in terms of exports sales. These are countries that imported the most Polish shipments by dollar value during 2021. Also shown is each import country’s percentage of total Polish exports.
- Germany: US$91.1 billion (28.6% of Poland’s total exports)
- Czech Republic: $19 billion (6%)
- France: $18.1 billion (5.7%)
- United Kingdom: $16.1 billion (5.1%)
- Italy: $14.1 billion (4.4%)
- Netherlands: $13.8 billion (4.3%)
- Russia: $8.79 billion (2.8%)
- Sweden: $8.75 billion (2.8%)
- United States: $8.68 billion (2.7%)
- Slovakia: $8.1 billion (2.5%)
- Belgium: $8 billion (2.5%)
- Hungary: $8 billion (2.5%)
- Spain: $7.8 billion (2.4%)
- Austria: $7.2 billion (2.3%)
- Ukraine: $7.1 billion (2.2%)
- Romania: $6.4 billion (2%)
- Lithuania: $5.3 billion (1.7%)
- Denmark: $5.2 billion (1.6%)
- China: $3.32 billion (1%)
- Norway: $3.27 billion (1%)
- Switzerland: $3.21 billion (1%)
- Turkey: $2.9 billion (0.9%)
- Finland: $2.6 billion (0.8%)
- Latvia: $2.1 billion (0.7%)
- Belarus: $2 billion (0.6%)
Almost nine-tenths (88.4%) of Polish exports in 2021 were delivered to the above 25 trade partners.
The fastest-growing buyers of Poland’s exports from 2020 to 2021 were Austria (up 41.6%), Lithuania (up 40.5%), Latvia (up 34.2%), Belgium (up 31.5%) and Italy (up 31.3%).
The only single-digit percentage increase among the top importers of Polish exports was mainland China via an 8.5% gain.
Countries Causing Worst Trade Deficits for Poland
Poland earned an overall -$17.6 billion trade deficit in 2021, up 3,486% from the -$491.4 million in red ink one year earlier for 2020.
As defined by Investopedia, a country whose total value of all imported goods is higher than its value of all exports is said to have a negative trade balance or deficit.
It would be unrealistic for any exporting nation to expect across-the-board positive trade balances with all its importing partners. Similarly, that export country doesn’t necessarily post a negative trade balance with each individual partner with which it exchanges exports and imports.
Poland incurred the highest trade deficits with the following countries.
- China: -US$46.3 billion (country-specific trade deficit in 2021)
- Russia: -$11.3 billion
- South Korea: -$6.8 billion
- Japan: -$4.2 billion
- Vietnam: -$3.6 billion
- Turkey: -$3.2 billion
- Bangladesh: -$2.9 billion
- Italy: -$2.6 billion
- Taiwan: -$2.2 billion
- India: -$2.1 billion
Among Poland’s trading partners that cause the greatest negative trade balances, Polish deficits with Saudi Arabia (up 659.9%), Russia (up 189.4%) and the United States of America (up 188.3%) grew at the fastest pace from 2020 to 2021.
These cashflow deficiencies clearly indicate Poland’s competitive disadvantages with the above countries, but also represent key opportunities for Poland to develop country-specific strategies to strengthen its overall position in international trade.
Countries Generating Best Trade Surpluses for Poland
Based on Investopedia’s definition of net importer, a country whose total value of all imported goods is lower than its value of all exports is said to have a positive trade balance or surplus.
Poland earned the highest trade surpluses at the expense of the following countries.
- Germany: US$20.4 billion (country-specific trade surplus in 2021)
- United Kingdom: $10.7 billion
- Czech Republic: $8.3 billion
- France: $6.9 billion
- Sweden: $3.22 billion
- Romania: $3.18 billion
- Lithuania: $3 billion
- Hungary: $2.9 billion
- Ukraine: $2 billion
- Denmark: $1.9 billion
Among Poland’s trading partners that generate the greatest positive trade balances, Polish surpluses with Denmark (up 45.6%), Lithuania (up 39%) and France (up 27.1%) grew at the fastest pace from 2020 to 2021.
These positive cashflow streams clearly indicate Poland’s competitive advantages with the above countries, but also represent key opportunities for Poland to develop country-specific strategies to optimize its overall position in international trade.
Polish Export Companies Servicing Trading Partners
Seven corporations rank among Forbes Global 2000. Below is a sample of the major Polish companies that Forbes included.
- KGHM Polska Miedz (diversified metals, mining)
- Pgnig Group (oil, gas)
- PKN Orlen (oil, gas)
According to global trading platform Alibaba, the following companies are examples of export companies located in Poland. Shown within parenthesis is the product category that the Polish business specializes in.
- Ambra SA (sparking wines)
- BIP SP (diesel heaters)
- EWAX SC (undershirts, knitwear)
- GENATA SP (laundry detergent)
- POLSKA GRUPA MEBLOWA FURINI (furniture)
- PPHU BIURO-DRUK Fialkowska Aurelia (leather cases)
- STRAIGHTLINE TRADE LIMITED SP (water purification equipment)
- TOMASZ RONATOWICZ TOP SOCZEWKI (watches)
- Zbyszko Company SP (sparkling water)
See also Poland’s Top 10 Exports, Poland’s Top 10 Imports, Czech Republic’s Top Trading Partners and Germany’s Top Trading Partners
Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook Country Profiles, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on June 12, 2022
Forbes Global 2000 rankings, The World’s Biggest Public Companies. Accessed on June 12, 2022
International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on June 12, 2022
Investopedia, Net Exports Definition. Accessed on June 12, 2022
Wikipedia, List of Companies of Poland. Accessed on June 12, 2022
Wikipedia, Poland. Accessed on June 12, 2022
Zepol’s company summary highlights by country. Accessed on June 12, 2022